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(AB>@8X0 3@G:5 =0F8X5, "!E20B0Z0 5=875;>A0 > 3@G:>< AB02C ?@5<0 "C@A:>X 8 10;:0=A:8< 4@6020<0")<br><br> (23) . . >?>28[, AB@.59. <br><br> (24) >A51=C ?06ZC =0 A@?A:>-1C30@A:5 >4=>A5 C =07=0G5=>< ?5@8>4C >1@0[0 !. >68[, "0:54>=8X0 :0> A?>@=> ?8B0Z5 87<5RC !@?A:5 @0Y52A:5 :045<8X5 8 C30@A:5 :045<8X5 0C:0 1913. 3>48=5", C 0;:0=A:8 @0B>28 1912-1913, >20 28R5Z0 8 BC<0G5Z0, !, 5>3@04 2013. <br><br> (25) . 8;>H528[, <i>!@18X0 8 @G:0 1914 1918, 7 8AB>@8X5 48?;><0BA:8E >4=>A0</i>, 0X5G0@, 1997, AB@. 15-18. <br><br> (26) >B2@4C AB02>20 A@?A:>3 0CB>@0 ?@>=0;078<> C ?8A0ZC 3@G:5 HB0<?5 (, "    ,     ", 5/06/1913, AB@. 1) (0:54>=8X0,"B:@8[0 ?>2>4>< A@?A:>-1C30@A:>3 A?>@07C<0"), 8 , "      ", 7/06/1913, AB@ .3 (0:54>=8X0," 43>2>@ C30@A:5 !@18X8")<br><br> (27) CA8X0 X5 @048;0 =0 87<8@5ZC A0257=8:0 8 A?0H020ZC 0;:0=A:>3 A02570. !@18XC X5 C25@020;0 40 [5 873C18B8 A8<?0B8X5 2@>?5 C:>;8:> 1C45 8=A8AB8@0;0 =0 @52878X8 C3>2>@0, =0 HB0 X5 0H8[ >43>2>@8> 40 A@?A:0 2;040 =5[5 4>?CAB8B8 40 A5 C30@A:0 ?@C68 87<5RC !@18X5 8 @G:5 8 4>R5 C 4>48@ A0 ;10=8X><. !0 4@C35 AB@0=5, 1C30@A:0 2;040 X5 C?>7>@020;0 "40 >=0 =5 <>65 18B8 >43>2>@=0 70 @0718X0Z5 0;:0=A:>3 A02570, C:>;8:> "@>X=8 A?>@07C< >4<0E =5 ?@54C7<5 <5@5 40 A5 !@18 8 @F8 C@07C<5". 2> A5 <>3;> AE20B8B8 8 :0> C?>7>@5Z5 ?@5BZ5, X5@ X5 C30@A:0 <>@0;0 40 7=0 :>X8 AC 8=B5@5A8 CA8X5 =0 0;:0=C. <br><br> (28) . , =.4., AB@. 59. <br><br> (29) "040HZ8 1C30@A:8 :@0Y $5@48=0=4, 1C4C[8 ?>B><0: <0R0@A:5 :C[5 !0:A  >1C@3->BE0->E0@8, =0H0> A5 1887. =0 1C30@A:>< ?@5AB>;C, C3;02=>< 70E20YCXC[8 C?>@=>AB8 A2>X5 <0X:5, :[5@8 :@0Y0 $@0=FCA:5 C4>28:0-$8;8?0. # ?>G5B:C A5 =0;078> ?>4 2;0H[C 8A>:5 >@B5, <5RCB8< 1908, :>@8AB5[8 A5 =5<8@8<0 :>X5 X5 870720> CAB0=0: ;04>BC@0:0, ?@>3;0A8> X5 C30@A:C =57028A=>< 0 A515 :@0Y5<. 5RCB8<, ?>;8B8G:8 A25B C 75<Y8 X5 18> C =5?@5AB0=>X A8BC0F8X8 <5RCA>1=>3 AC:>10, 0 :0> 3;02=8 @07;>3 A5 <>30> A<0B@0B8 ?8B0Z5 0:54>=8X5. <br><br> (30) '8Z5=8F0 X5 <5RCB8<, 0 B> A5 X0A=> C>G020;> 8 :0A=8X5 B>:>< @2>3 A25BA:>3 @0B0, 40 X5 :@0Y $5@48=0=4 CA?5> 40 ?@5>@8X5=B8H5 ?@5<0 5GC A?>Y=C ?>;8B8:C C30@A:5, G8X8 X5 =0@>4 C ACHB8=8 >AB0X0> >:@5=CB CA8X8. "0:> X5 =0 A2>XC AB@0=C ?@84>18> ?>1C30@5=5 0:54>=F5, 0 ?0@0;5;=> X5 4>25> 8 C !>D8X8 ?>AB028> YC45 87 CAB@>C30@A:5 (8 5<0G:5) :>X8<0 X5 C:070> A2>X5 ?>25@5Z5. !25 87=5A5=5 G8Z5=8F5 [5 ?@54AB028B8 >A=>2=5 C7@>:5, :0:> 70 8718X0Z5, B0:> 8 70 @072>X @C3>3 10;:0=A:>3 @0B0 (. ,    ,         `   ,     ,   (16  2007),        ,  2007,AB@. 58) <br><br> (31) .. >?>28[ AB@.61. <br><br> (32) 02545=8 AC:>1, @C38 10;:0=A:8 @0B, =8X5 8<0> H0=A5 40 8718X5, 40, C <5RC2@5<5=C =8X5 =0AB0;> ?8B0Z5 ;10=8X5. 8B0Z5 =57028A=>AB8 >25 75<Y5 ?@54AB02Y0;> X5 ?>A51=> 8=B5@5A0=B0= A;CG0X. @2> X5 ?@87=0B0, 0 B5: >=40 AB2>@5=0. #3>2>@>< C >=4>=C >4 30. <0X0 1913, 8A>:0 >@B0 X5 A0257=8G:8< E@8H[0=A:8< 2;040@8<0 ?@5?CAB8;0 A25 B5@8B>@8X5 70?04=> >4 D8:B82=5 ;8=8X5 =>A-848X0 C "@0:8X8, 87C752 ;10=8X5, =04 :>X>< AC 1@83C ?@5C75;5 5;8:5 A8;5. ;10=8XC X5, <5RCB8<, ?@865Y:820;0 !@18X0, :>X0 X5, :0:> 18 A5 <>3;> >G5:820B8, 65;5;0 87;07 =0 <>@5, C >2>< A;CG0XC =0 04@0=. 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AB@. 39-40 8   " " (), 16  1905. <br><br> (35) . ,  ,   , . 8 (: , 1929), AB@.322. <br><br> (36) .  . ,    ,   1890-1923.  :  .    .  ( : , 1997), AB@. 192. (!C:>1, :>X8 X5 <5RCB8<, 87 @07;>30 845>;>H8E ?@>B82C@5G=>AB8, 8A:@A0> 87<5RC >25 425 ;8G=>AB8 ?@>C7@>:>20> X5 CAB0=0: C "5@8AC, :>X8 X5, <5RCB8<, C =>25<1@C 1905, 25[ 18> =0 A2>< :@0XC. >A;548G=>, ?>B?C=> X5 ?>3@5H=> @52>;CF8>=0@=0 8=8F8X0B820 5=875;>A0, A<0B@0=0 C7@>:><, B>:>< =0@54=5 1906. 3>48=5, ?>2;0G5Z0 ?@8=F0 5>@38>A0 A0 <5AB0 3C25@=5@0. 0:> A5, =0@02=>, =5 <>65 ?@5=51@53=CB8 Z53>20 ?A8E>;>H:0 8AF@?Y5=>AB, ?@C7@>:>20=0 AC:>18<0 A0 5=875;>A><, ?@028 C7@>: Z53>2>3 =0?CHB0Z0 @8B0 18;0 X5 Z53>20 2570 A0 ?@8=F57>< 0@8X>< >=0?0@B0, :>X>< A5 8 >65=8>, :0:> X5 ?>7=0B> 1907, =0A5;82H8 A5 ?>B><, C X54=>< ?0@8A:>< ?@543@0RC. # ?>G5B:C X5 =0?CAB8> @8B, 0 70B8< 8 @G:C, >B8H02H8 C $@0=FCA:C , C :>X>X X5 ?>6825> A25 4> A2>X5 A<@B8 1957.) <br><br> (37)  ,  "",   , . 3, :  , 1985), AB@.28. <br><br> (38) . 8E0;>?C;>A, AB@.58. <br><br> (39)   & # ?>A;54Z5 2@5<5 C 3@G:>X 8AB>@8>3@0D8X8 A5 ?>X02YCXC B2@4Z5 > 4@C30G8X8< C7@>F8<0 8718X0Z0 @C3>3 10;:0=A:>3 @0B0. # A:;04C A0 =02>48<0 8725A=8E 3@G:8E 8AB>@8G0@0 45A8;> =5HB> HB> A5 <>65 AE20B8B8 A0<> :0> ?@>2>:0F8X0: C X54=>X 0B8=A:>X 4=52=>X =>28=8 ?>X028> A5 X540= ?;038X0B 87X025 3@G:5 2;045 ?@>B82 C30@A:5, ?8A0=5 X54=8< 25><0 >HB@8< AB8;><, B5 X5 CA;54 >20:2>3 =0ABC?0 AC:>1 87<5RC 10;:0=A:8E E@8H[0=A:8E 4@6020 18> =5871560=. #8AB8=C, >20 >1X020 X5 18;0 2C;30@=0 8 C2@54Y820 C B>X <5@8, 40 X5 5=875;>A >4<0E ?>A;0> ?> :@0Y0 >=AB0=B8=0, :>X8 A5 B040 =0;078> C !>;C=C. 20X A;CG0X ;06=5 45:;0@0F8X5 45A8> A5 C XC=C 1913, 40:;5 C 2@5<5 :040 AC 5?87>45 87<5RC @:0 8 C30@0 8 C !>;C=C, 0 8 20= Z530 18;5 CG5AB0;5. (848 . 8E0;>?C;>A, AB@.58) <br><br> (40) ". @5845; , <i>   </i>,  2009, AB@. 91-93. <br><br> (41) . 8E0;>?C;>A, AB@. 67-73. <br><br> (42) <i>   </i>, "               ", AB@. 250. 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